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Biogeographic diversification of Mahonia (Berberidaceae): Implications for the origin and evolution of East Asian subtropical evergreen broadleaved forests
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Chen XH, Xiang KL, Lian L, Peng HW, Erst AS, Xiang XG, Chen ZD, Wang W*
PubYear : 2020
Volume : 151  Issue : 
Publication Name : Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Page number : 106910
Abstract : 

The subtropical evergreen broadleaved forests (EBLFs) inhabit large areas of East Asia and harbor rich biodiversity and high endemism. However, the origin and evolution of biodiversity of East Asian subtropical EBLFs remain poorly understood. Here, we used Mahonia (Berberidaceae), an eastern Asian-western North American disjunct evergreen genus, to obtain new insights into the historical assembly of this biome. We present the most comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of Mahonia do date based on six nuclear and plastid loci. Using the phylogenetic framework, we estimated divergence times, reconstructed ancestral ranges, inferred evolutionary shift of habitats, and estimated diversification rates. Mahonia and each of its two groups (Orientales and Occidentales) are strongly supported as monophyletic. Mahonia originated in western North America during the late Eocene (c. 40.41 Ma) and subsequently dispersed into East Asia prior to the early Oligocene (c. 32.65 Ma). The North Atlantic Land Bridge might have played an important role in population exchanges of Mahonia between East Asia and western North America. The western North American Occidentales began to diversify in summer-dry climates and open landscapes in the early Miocene, whereas the eastern Asian Orientales began to diversify in subtropical EBLFs in the early Miocene and furthermore had a rapid lineage accumulation since the late Miocene. The net diversification rate of Mahonia in eastern Asia appeared to be higher than that in western North America, which is ascribed to lower extinction rates and ecological opportunity. Our findings suggest that western North America is a source of biodiversity of East Asian subtropical EBLFs. This biome in eastern Asia began to rise in the early Miocene and further diversified in the late Miocene, driven by the intensifying East Asian summer monsoon during these two periods.

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