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The synergy of abiotic and biotic factors correlated with diversification of Fumarioideae (Papaveraceae) in the Cenozoic
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Peng HW, Xiang KL, Erst AS, Erst TV, Jabbour F, Ortiz RD, Wang W*
PubYear : 2023
Volume : 186  Issue : 
Publication Name : Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Page number : 107868
Abstract : 

Rapid diversification of a group is often associated with exploiting an ecological opportunity and/or the evolution of a key innovation. However, how the interplay of such abiotic and biotic factors correlates with organismal diversification has been rarely documented in empirical studies, especially for organisms inhabiting drylands. Fumarioideae is the largest subfamily in Papaveraceae and is mainly distributed in temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Here, we used one nuclear (ITS) and six plastid (rbcL, atpB, matK, rps16, trnL-F, and trnG) DNA sequences to investigate the spatio-temporal patterns of diversification and potential related factors of this subfamily. We first present the most comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of Fumarioideae to date. The results of our integrated molecular dating and biogeographic analyses indicate that the most recent common ancestor of Fumarioideae started to diversify in Asia during the Upper Cretaceous, and then dispersed multiple times out of Asia in the Cenozoic. In particular, we discover two independent dispersal events from Eurasia to East Africa in the late Miocene, suggesting that the Arabian Peninsula might be an important exchange corridor between Eurasia and East Africa in the late Miocene. Within the Fumarioideae, increased speciation rates were detected in two groups, Corydalis and Fumariinae. Corydalis first experienced a burst of diversification in its crown group at ~ 42 Ma, and further accelerated diversification from the mid-Miocene onwards. During these two periods, Corydalis had evolved diverse life history types, which could have facilitated the colonization of diverse habitats originating from extensive orogenesis in the Northern Hemisphere as well as Asian interior desertification. Fumariinae underwent a burst of diversification at ~ 15 Ma, which temporally coincides with the increasing aridification in central Eurasia, but is markedly posterior to the shifts in habitat (from moist to arid) and in life history (from perennial to annual) and to range expansion from Asia to Europe, suggesting that Fumariinae species may have been pre-adapted to invade European arid habitats by the acquisition of annual life history. Our study provides an empirical case that documents the importance of pre-adaptation on organismal diversification in drylands and highlights the significant roles of the synergy of abiotic and biotic factors in promoting plant diversification.

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