张文浩，中国科学院植物研究所研究员，博士生导师，中国科学院大学岗位教授，植被与环境变化国家重点实验室主任、中国科学院内蒙古草业研究中心主任、中国科学院北京生命科学院全球变化生物学联合中心主任；中国生态学会、中国草学会和中国植物营养学会理事。2007年度国家杰出青年基金获得者，2009年中国科学院人才引进终期评估优秀者。1986年毕业于内蒙古农业大学草原系，1986年考取出国留学预备生，1993年毕业于澳大利亚弗林德斯大学生物系，获博士学位。1993年至2004年先后在西澳大利亚大学、阿德莱德大学从事植物生理学研究。先后担任New Phytologist，Journal of Experimental Botany，BMC Plant Biology, AoB Plants, Environmental and Experimental Botany等国际刊物的编委和副主编。张文浩研究员的主要研究领域为植物逆境生理生态、草地全球变化生态学和牧草学，在相关领域取得了一系列原创性成果。在植物学和生态学领域的核心刊物Plant Physiology、New Phytologist、Ecology、Functional Ecology等发表SCI论文100余篇，其中多篇论文入选ESI“高被引论文”（Highly Cited Papers)，论文被引用4000余次；自2014以来连续入选爱思维尔中国高被引学者榜单。授权专利10余项，培养研究生、博士后20余名。主持基金委杰出青年、重点和面上项目，科技部基础性科技专项、科学院重要方向性和STS等项目。近年来，作为呼伦贝尔草牧业科技示范工程的核心成员，张文浩研究员领导的团队在退化天然草地修复和高产人工草地建植等理论和技术方面取得了重要进展，探索出了一条有中国特色的草地可持续利用的新理念、新技术和新模式。
1.Li Q, Yang A*, Zhang WH*. 2019. Higher endogenous bioactive gibberellins and α-amylase activity confer greater tolerance of rice seed germination to saline-alkaline stress. Environmental and Experimental Botany 16: 357-363.
2.Zheng Z, Bai WM, Zhang WH*. 2019. Root trait-mediated belowground competition and community composition of temperate grasslands under nitrogen enrichment. Plant and Soil 437: 341-354.
3.Hou LY, Wang MY, Wang H, Zhang WH, Mao PS. 2019. Physiological and proteomic analyses for seed dormancy and release in the perennial grass of Leymus chinensis. Environmental and Experimental Botany 162: 95-102.
4.Cui N, Lu H, Wang TZ, Zhang WH, Kang L, Cui F. 2019. Armet, an aphid effector protein, induces pathogen resistance in plants by promoting the accumulation of salicylic acid. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences.DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2018.0314
5.Zheng Z, Bai WM, Zhang WH*. 2019. Clonality-dependent dynamic change of plant community in temperate grasslands under nitrogen enrichment. Oecologia 189:255-266.
6.Zhang XX, Wang TZ, Liu M, Sun W, Zhang WH*. 2019. Calmodulin-like gene MtCML40 is involved in salt tolerance by regulating MtHKTs transporters in Medicago truncatula.Environmental and Experimental Botany 157:79-90.
7.Zhou M, Bai WM*, Zhang YS, Zhang WH*. 2018. A Multi-dimensional variation pattern of root traits among coexisting herbaceous species in temperate steppes.Journal of Ecology 106: 2320-2331.
8.Zheng Z, Li J, Ma PF, Ren LF, Bai WM, Tian QY, Zhang WH*. 2018. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities associated with two dominant species differed in their responses to long-term nitrogen addition in temperate grasslands. Functional Ecology 32: 1575-1688.
9.Cheng Y, Zhang XX, Sun TY, Tian QY*, Zhang WH*. 2018. Glutamate receptor homolog3.4 is involved in regulation of seed germination under salt stress in Arabidopsis. Plant and Cell Physiology 59: 978–988.
10.Mao XT, Li QF, Ren LF, Bai WM, Zhang WH*. 2018. Application ofmolybdenum fertilizer enhanced quality and production of alfalfa in northern China under non-irrigated conditions. Journal of Plant Nutrition 41: 1009- 1019.
12.Li Q, Yang A, Zhang WH*. 2017. Comparative studies on tolerance of rice genotypes differing in their tolerance to moderate salt stress. BMC Plant Biology 17: 141; DOI 10.1186/s12870-017-1089-0
13.Wang BL, Wei HF, Xue Z, Zhang WH*. 2017. Gibberellins regulate iron deficiency-response by influencing iron transport and translocation in rice seedlings (Oryza sativa L.). Annals of Botany 119: 945-956
14.Bai WM, Zhou M, Fang Y, Zhang WH*. 2017. Differences in spatial and temporal root lifespan of three Stipa grasslands in northern China. Biogeochemistry 132: 293-306.
15.Liu NN, Tian QY, Zhang WH*. 2016. Artemisia frigida and Stipa krylovii, two dominant species in Inner Mongolia steppe, differed in their responses to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration. Plant and Soil 409: 117-129
16.Li Q, Yang A, Zhang WH*. 2016. Efficient acquisition of iron underlies greater tolerance to saline-alkaline stress in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Journal of Experimental Botany 67: 6431-6444.
17.Zhang WH*,Luo ZB, Fan LM, Qu LJ. 2016. A glimpse of environmental plant science in China. Environmental and Experimental Botany 129:1-3.
18.Yang A, Zhang WH*. 2016. A Small GTPase, OsRab6a, is involved in the regulation of iron homeostasis in rice. Plant and Cell Physiology 57: 1271-1280.
19.Cheng Y, Tian QY, Zhang WH*. 2016. Glutamate receptors are involved in mitigating effects of amino acids on seed germination of Arabidopsis thaliana under salt stress. Environmental and Experimental Botany 130: 68-78.
20.Tian QY, Zhang XX, Yang A, Wang TZ, Zhang WH*. 2016. CIPK23 is involved in iron acquisition of Arabidopsis by affecting ferric chelate reductase activity. Plant Science 246: 70-79.
21.Qi SL, Lin QF, Zhu HS, Gao FH, Zhang WH, Hua XJ. 2016. The RING Finger E3 ligase SpRing is a positive regulator of salt stress signaling in salt-tolerant wild tomato species. Plant and Cell Physiology 57: 528-539.
22.Dai XY, Wang YY, Zhang WH*. 2016. OsWRKY74, a WRKY transcription factor modulates tolerance to phosphate-starvation in rice. Journal of Experimental Botany 67: 947-960.
23.TianQY, Liu NN, Bai WM, Li LH, Chen JQ, Reich PB, Yu Q, Guo DL, Smith MD, Knapp AK, Cheng WX, Lu P, Gao Y, Yang A, Wang TZ, Li X, Wang ZW, Ma YB, Han XG, Zhang WH*. 2016. A novel soil manganese mechanism drives plant species loss with increased nitrogen deposition in a temperate steppe. Ecology97: 65-74.
24.Gao Y, Li X, Tian QY, Wang BL, Zhang WH*. 2016. Sulfur deficiency had different effects on Medicago truncatula ecotypes A17 and R108 in terms of growth, root morphology and nutrient contents. Journal of Plant Nutrition 39: 301-314.
25.Yang A, Liu NN, Tian QY, Bai WM*, Williams M, Wang QB, Li LH, Zhang WH*. 2015. Rhizosphere bacterial communities of dominant steppe plants shift in response to a gradient of simulated nitrogen deposition. Frontiers in Microbiology 6: 789. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2015.00789
26.Bai WM*, Guo DL, Tian QY, Liu NN, Cheng WX, Li LH, Zhang WH*. 2015. Differential responses of grasses and forbs led to marked reduction in belowground productivity in temperate steppe following chronic N deposition. Journal of Ecology 103:1570-1579.
27.Tian QY, Liu NN, Bai WM, Li LH, Zhang WH*. 2015. Disruption of metal ion homeostasis in soils is associated with nitrogen deposition-induced species loss in an Inner Mongolia steppe. Biogeosciences 12: 3499-3512.
29.Bai WM, Fang Y, Zhou M, Xie T, Li LH, Zhang WH*. 2015. Heavily intensified grazing reduces root production in Inner Mongolia temperate steppe. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 200:143-150.
30.Liu M, Wang TZ, Zhang WH*. 2015. Sodium extrusionassociated with enhanced expression of SOS1 underliesdifferent salt tolerance between Medicago falcata and Medicago truncatula seedlings. Environmental and Experimental Botany 110:46-55.
31.Sun YC, Guo HJ, Yuan L, Wei JN, Zhang WH, Ge F. 2015. Plant stomatal closure improves aphid feeding under elevated CO2. Global Change Biology 21: 2739-2748.
32.Wang BL, Li G, Zhang WH*. 2015. Brassinosteroids are involved in Fe homeostasis in rice.Journal of Experimental Botany 66: 2449-2461.
33.Zhao MG, Liu WJ, Xia XZ, Wang TZ, Zhang WH*. 2014. Cold acclimation- induced freezing tolerance of Medicago truncatula seedlings is negatively regulated by ethylene. Physiologia Plantarum 152:115-129.
34.Tian QY, Zhang XX, Ramesh S, Gilliham M, Tyerman SD,Zhang WH*. 2014. Ethylene negatively regulated aluminum-induced malate efflux from wheat roots and tobacco cells transformed with TaALMT1. Journal of Experimental Botany65:2415-2426.
35.Wang TZ, Tian QY, Wang BL, Zhao MG, Zhang WH*. 2014. Genome variations account for different response to three mineral elements between Medicago truncatula ecotypes Jemalong A17 and R108. BMC Plant Biology 14：122. doi:10.1186/1471-2229-14-122
36.Gao Y, Tian QY, Zhang WH*. 2014. Systemic regulation of sulfur homeostasis in Medicago truncatula. Planta 239:79-96.
37.Li G., Wang BL, Tian QY, Wang TZ, Zhang WH*. 2014. Medicago truncatula ecotypes A17 and R108 differed in their response to iron deficiency. Journal of Plant Physiology 171: 639–647.
38.Guo HJ, Sun YC*, Li YF, Liu XH, Zhang WH, Ge F. 2014. Elevated CO2 decreases the response of the ethylene signaling pathway in Medicago truncatula and increases the abundance of the pea aphid. New Phytologist 201: 279-291.
39.Lu P, Wang L, Niu Z, Li LH, Zhang WH. 2013. Prediction of soil properties using laboratory VIS–NIR spectroscopy and Hyperion imagery. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 132:26-33.
40.Ren HY, Xu ZW, Zhang WH, Jiang L, Huang JH, Chen SP, Wang LX, Han XG. 2013. Linking ethylene to nitrogen-dependent leaf longevity of grass species in a temperate steppe. Annals of Botany 112:1879-1885.
41.Yang A, Li YS, Xu YY, Zhang WH*. 2013. A receptor-like protein OsRMC is involved in regulation of iron acquisition in rice. Journal of Experimental Botany 64:5009-5200.
42.Tian QY, Zhang XX, Gao Y, Bai WM, Ge F, Ma YB, Zhang WH*. 2013. Wheat genotypes differing in aluminum tolerance differ in their growth response to CO2 enrichment in acid soils. Ecology & Evolution 3:1440-1448.
43.Wang TZ, Xia XZ, Zhao MG, Tian QY, Zhang WH*. 2013. Expression of a Medicago falcata small GTPase gene, MfARL1 enhanced tolerance to salt stress in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry63:277-285.
44.Wang TZ, Zhang JL, Tian QY, Zhao MG, Zhang WH*. 2013. A Medicago truncatula EF-hand family gene, MtCaMP1, is involved in drought and salt stress tolerance.PLoS ONE 8:e58952. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0058952.
45.Chen L, Wang TZ, Zhao MG, Zhang WH. 2012. Ethylene-responsive miRNAs in roots of Medicago truncatula identified by high-throughput sequencing at whole genome level. Plant Science 184:14-19.
46.Bai WM, Xia JY, Wan SQ, Zhang WH, Li LH. 2012. Day and night warming have different effect on root lifespan.Biogeosciences 9:375-384.
47.Chen L, Wang TZ, Zhao MG, Tian QY,Zhang WH*. 2012. Identification of aluminum-responsive microRNAs in Medicago truncatula by genome-wide high-throughput sequencing. Planta 235:375-386.
48.Song SY, Chen Y, Zhao MG, Zhang WH*. 2012. A novel Medicago truncatula HD-Zip gene, MtHB2, is involved in abiotic stress responses. Environmental and Experimental Botany 80:1-9.
49.Yang XJ, Baskin C, Baskin J, Zhang WH, Huang ZY. 2012. Degradation of seed mucilage by soil microflora promotes early seedling growth of a desert sand dune plant. Plant Cell and Environment 35:872-883.
50.Yang A, Dai XY,Zhang WH*. 2012. A R2R3-type MYB gene, OsMYB2, is involved in salt, cold and dehydration tolerance in rice. Journal of Experimental Botany 63: 2541-2556.
51.Dai XY, Wang YY, Yang A, Zhang WH*. 2012. OsMYB2P-1, a R2R3 MYB transcription factor, regulates phosphate-starvation responses and root architecture in rice.Plant Physiology 159: 169-183.
52.Wang BL, Li YS, Zhang WH*. 2012. Brassinosteroids are involved in the regulation of ferric reductase and Fe uptake in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Annals of Botany 110:681-688.
53.Song SY, Dai XY, Zhang WH*. 2012. The involvement of F-box gene, OsFXB352, in glucose-dependent seed germination in rice. Journal of Experimental Botany 63: 5559-5568.
54.Fang Y, Xun F, Bai WM, Zhang WH, Li LH. 2012. Long-term nitrogen addition leads to loss of species richness due to litter accumulation and soil acidification in a temperate steppe. PLoS ONE 7: e4736. doi:10.1371 /journal.pone.0047369
55.Ryan PR, Tyerman SD, Sasaki T, Yamamoto Y, Zhang WH, Delhaize E. 2011. Aluminum resistance in plants: Opinions and perspectives on recent developments. Journal of Experimental Botany 62: 9-20.
56.Li YS, Gao Y, Tian QY, Shi FL, Li LH, Zhang WH*. 2011. Stimulation of root acid phosphatase by phosphorus deficiency is regulated by ethylene in Medicago falcata. Environmental and Experimental Botany 71:114-120.
57.Song SY, Chen Y, Chen J, Dai XY, Zhang WH*. 2011. Physiological mechanisms underlying OsNAC5-dependent tolerance of rice plants to abiotic stress. Planta 234:331–345.
58.Zhang LL, Zhao MG, Tian QY, Zhang WH*. 2011. Comparative studies on tolerance of Medicago truncatula and Medicago falcata to freezing.Planta 234:445-457.
59.Wang TZ, Chen L, Zhao MG, Tian QY, Zhang WH*. 2011. Identification of drought-responsive microRNAs and their targets in Medicago truncatula by genome-wide high-throughput sequencing. BMC Genomics 12:367. Doi:
60.Yang XJ, Zhang WH, Dong M, Huang ZY, Boubriak I. 2011. The achene mucilage hydrated in desert dew assists seed cells in maintaining DNA integrity: Adaptive strategy of desert plants Artemisia sphaerocephala. PLoS ONE 6: e24346. Doi:
61.Wang BL. Zhang JL, Xia XZ, Zhang WH*. 2011. Ameliorative effect of brassinosteroid and ethylene on germination of cucumber seeds in the presence of sodium chloride. Plant Growth Regulation 65:407–413.
62.Li Y, Yang HJ, Xia JY, Zhang WH, Li LH, Wan SQ. 2011. Effects of increased nitrogen deposition and precipitation on seeds and seedlings of Potentilla tanacetifolia in a temperate steppe ecosystem. PLoS ONE 6: e28601. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0028601.
63.Sun P, Tian QY, Chen J, Zhang WH*. 2010. Aluminum-induced inhibition of root elongation in Arabidopsis is mediated by ethylene and auxin. Journal of Experimental Botany 61:347-356.
65.Wang BL, Shi L, Li YX, Zhang WH*. 2010. Boron toxicity is alleviated by hydrogen sulfide in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings. Planta 231:1301-1309.
66.Miao BH, Han XG, Zhang WH*. 2010. Ameliorative effect of silicon on soybean seedlings grown in potassium deficient medium. Annals of Botany 105:967-973.
67.Chang CS, Wang BL, Shi L, Li YX, Duo LA*, Zhang WH*. 2010. Alleviation of salt stress-induced inhibition of seed germination in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) by ethylene and glutamate. Journal of Plant Physiology 167:1152-1156.
68.Wang BL, Tang XY, Cheng LY, Zhang AZ, Zhang WH, Zhang FS, Liu JQ, Cao Y, Allan DL, Vance CP, Shen JB. 2010. Nitric oxide is involved in phosphorus deficiency-induced cluster root development and citrate exudation in white lupin. New Phytologist 187:1112-1123.
69.Bai WM Li Y, Zhang WH, Li LH. 2010. Rhizome severing increases root lifespan of Leymus chinensis in a typical steppe of Inner Mongolia.PLoS ONE 5: e12125.
70.Zhao MG, Liu RJ, Chen L, Tian QY, Zhang WH*. 2009. Glucose-induced inhibition of seed germination in Lotus japonicus is alleviated by nitric oxide and spermine.Journal of Plant Physiology 166: 213-218.
71.Li YS, Mao XT, Tian QY, Li LH,Zhang WH*. 2009. Phosphorus deficiency-induced reduction in root hydraulic conductivity is mediated by ethylene in Medicago falcata. Environmental and Experimental Botany 67:172-177.
72.Zhao MG, Chen L, Zhang LL, Zhang WH*. 2009. Nitric oxide synthase–dependent nitric oxide production is associated with salt tolerance in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiology 151: 755-767.
73.Tian QY, Sun P, Zhang WH*. 2009. Ethylene is involved in mediating nitrate-dependent root branching in Arabidopsis. New Phytologist 184: 918-931.
74.Mao SY, Jiang CD, Zhang WH, Shi L, Zhang JZ, Chow WS, Yang JC. 2009. Water translocation between ramets of strawberry during soil drying and its effects on photosynthetic performance. Physiologia Plantarum 137: 225–234.
75.Bai WM, Wang ZW, Chen QS, Zhang WH, Li LH. 2008. Spatial and temporal effects of nitrogen addition on root lifespan of Leymus chinensis in a typical Inner Mongolia. Functional Ecology 22:583-591.
76.Zhang WH, Ryan PR, Sasaki T, Yamamoto Y, Sullivan W, Tyerman SD. 2008. Characterization of the TaALMT1 protein as an Al3+-activated anion channel in transformed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) cells. Plant and Cell Physiology 49: 1316-1330.
77.Tian QY, Sun DH, Zhao MG, Zhang WH*. 2007. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) underlies aluminum-induced inhibition of root elongation in Hibiscus moscheutos L. New Phytologist 174: 322-331.
78.Zhao MG, Tian QY, Zhang WH*. 2007. Ethylene activates a plasma membrane Ca2+- permeable channel in tobacco cells. New Phytologist 174: 507-515.
79.Zhang WH, Zhou Y, Dibley KE, Tyerman SD, Furbank RT, Patrick JW. 2007. Nutrient loading of developing seeds.Functional Plant Biology 34: 314-331.
80.Zhao MG, Tian QY, Zhang WH*. 2007. Nitric oxide synthase–dependent nitric oxide production is associated with salt tolerance in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiology 144: 206-217.
81.Zhao DY, Tian QY, Li LH, Zhang WH*. 2007. Nitric oxide is involved in nitrate-induced inhibition of root elongation in Zea mays L.Annals of Botany 100：497-503.
82.Sun P, Tian QY, Zhao MG, Dai XY, Li LH, Huang JH, Zhang WH*. 2007. Aluminum- induced ethylene production is associated with inhibition of root elongation in Lotus japonicus L.Plant and Cell Physiology 48:1229-1235.
83.Zhang WH*, Patrick JW, Tyerman SD. 2007. Actin filaments modulate hypoosmotic- responsive K+ efflux channels in specialised cells of developing bean seed coats. Functional Plant Biology 34:874-884.
84.Wang BL, Shen JB,Zhang WH, Zhang FS,Neumann G. 2007. Citrate exudation from white lupin induced by phosphorus deficiency differs from that induced by aluminum. New Phytologist 176:581-589.
85.Zhang WH*, Walker NA, Tyerman SD, Patrick JW. 2004. Pulsing Cl- currents in seed coat cells of developing bean seeds linked to hyperosmotic turgor regulation. Journal of Experimental Botany55: 993-100.
86.Zhang WH*, Walker NA, Patrick JW, Tyerman SD. 2004. Calcium-dependent K+ current in plasma membrane of dermal cells of developing bean cotyledons. Plant Cell and Environment 27: 251-262.
87.Zhang WH,Ryan PR, Tyerman SD. 2004. Citrate-permeable anion channels in the plasma membranes of cluster roots from white lupin. Plant Physiology 136:3771-3783.
88.Rengel Z, Zhang WH. 2003. Tansley Review: Role of dynamics of intracellular calcium in aluminum toxicity syndrome. New Phytologist 159: 295-314.
89.Zhang WH*, Skerrett M, Walker NA, Patrick JW, Tyerman SD. 2002. Non-selective currents and channels in plasma membrane of coat cells in developing Phaseolus vulgaris L. seeds. Plant Physiology128: 388-399.
90.Patrick JW,Zhang WH, Tyerman SD, Offler CE, Walker NA. 2001. Role of membrane transport in phloem translocation of assimilates and water.Australian Journal of Plant Physiology28: 695– 707.
91.Zhang WH*, Ryan PR, Tyerman SD. 2001. Malate-permeable channels and cation channels activated by aluminum in the apical cells of wheat root roots.Plant Physiology 125: 1459-1472.
92.Zhang WH*, Walker NA, Tyerman SD, Patrick JW. 2000. Fast-activation of time-dependent outward current in plasma membrane of ground parenchyma protoplasts derived from coats of developing Phaseolus vulgaris seeds.Planta 211:894-898.
93.Walker NA,Zhang WH, Holdways N, Harrigton G, Patrick, JW. 2000. Effluxes of solutes from developing seed coats of Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Vicia faba L.: locating the effects of turgor in a coupled chemisosmotic system. Journal of Experimental Botany52: 1037-1045.
94.Zhang WH, Rengel Z. 1999. Aluminum induces an increase in cytoplasmic Ca2+ in intact wheat roots. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology26: 401-409.
95.Zhang WH*, Tyerman SD. 1999. Inhibition of water channels by Hg in intact wheat root cells. Plant Physiology120: 849-858.
96.Zhang WH, Rengel Z, Kuo J, Yang G. 1999. Effects of aluminum on pollen germination and pollen tube growth of Chamelaucium uncinatum: Comparison with other Ca2+ channel antagonists. Annals of Botany84:559-564.
97.Zhang WH, Rengel Z, Kuo J. 1998. Determination of intracellular Ca2+ in cells of intact wheat roots: loading of acetoxymethy ester of Fluo-3 under low temperature. The Plant Journal15: 147-151.
98.Zhang WH*, Tyerman SD. 1997. Effect of low O2 concentration on electrical properties of cortical cells of wheat roots. Journal of Plant Physiology150: 567-572.
99.Zhang WH*, Walker NA, Patrick JW, Tyerman SD. 1997. Mechanisms of solute efflux from seed coats: Whole-cell K+ current in transfer cell protoplasts derived from seed coats of developing Vicia seeds.Journal of Experimental Botany48:1565-1572.
100.Zhang WH, Atwell JB, Patrick JW, Walker NA. 1996. Turgor-dependent assimilates efflux from coats of developing Phaseolus vulgaris L. seeds: Water relations of the cells involved in efflux. Planta119:25-33.
101.Zhang WH*, Jones GP. 1996. Water permeability in wheat root protoplasts determined from nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation times. Plant Science118: 97-106.
102.Walker NA, Patrick JW, Zhang WH,Fieuw S. 1995. Efflux of photosynthate and acid from developing seed coats of Phaseolus vulgaris L.: A chemiosmotic analysis of pump-driven efflux. Journal of Experimental Botany46: 539-549.
103.Zhang WH*, Tyerman SD. 1991. Effect of low O2concentration and azide onhydraulic conductivity and osmotic volume of the cortical cells of wheat roots. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology18: 603-613.